Though it has been used to be the 'gold' standard, it is now being superseded by molecular biological methods as they become more precise and time efficient.
    Under rapid development and widely accepted in various laboratories.

  • Complement-mediated Microlymphocytotoxicity
  • Easy to test without necessity of expensive equipments.
  • High-quality serum required to obtain low resolution results and reliable results
  • Large volume of blood & viable lymphocytes is required.
  • Difficult to find high-quality serum for detecting rare antigens found in different races.

  • PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) has typically been used
  • All of the molecular methods require good quality genomic DNA
  • Requires extra primers to be used
  • Sequence of alleles must be known

  • SSO: sequence specific oligonucleotide
  • reverse SSO hybridization
  • RFLP: restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • SSCP: sequence specific conformational polymorphism
  • SSP: sequence specific primer (currently applied)
  • SBT: sequence-based typing (currently applied)
  • Recently, SPREX(Sequence specific Primer Refractory Extension) chips and real-time PCR methods have independently been developed and used for HLA test.